What is Ammonia Solution?

July 27, 2023

By Srujal Sharma

What is Ammonia Solution

Ammonia solution, often referred to as aqueous ammonia, ammonia water or ammonium hydroxide, is a liquid solution comprising dissolved ammonia gas in water. It is widely used in various industries and households due to its diverse properties and applications. Join us in this article as we delve into the world of ammonia solutions. We’ll explore its composition, properties, various applications, safety measures, and much more.


Ammonia solution has been used for centuries for its versatile nature and chemical properties. You’ll often encounter this odoriferous, colorless liquid which is commonly found in concentrations ranging from 5% to 10% ammonia by weight. The solution is commonly produced by dissolving ammonia gas (NH3) in water.

What is Ammonia Solution?

Ammonia solution is an aqueous solution of ammonia gas. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound composed of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. Being highly soluble, this gas readily dissolves in water to produce ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). The resulting solution is commonly referred to as ammonia solution or ammonia water.

Composition of Ammonia Solution

Ammonia solution is composed of water and dissolved ammonia gas. The ammonia concentration within the solution can fluctuate, typically falling within the range of 5% to 30% ammonia by weight. The solution is labeled with its concentration, which indicates the amount of ammonia present in the solution. It comes in two grades: commercial and analytical reagent grade, one made with normal industrial water, and the latter made with demineralized water.

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Properties of Ammonia Solution

Color and Odor:

Ammonia solution is a colorless liquid with a characteristic pungent odor. The strong odor of ammonia is distinctive and easily recognizable.

Boiling Point and Freezing Point:

The boiling point of ammonia solution depends on the concentration of ammonia. Once the temperature reaches approximately 57.5 °C (135.5 °F), a 10% ammonia solution will reach its boiling point.

On the other hand, a 25% solution boils at around 37.7 °C (99.9 °F). For a 10% solution, the freezing point of ammonia solution is approximately -77.7 °C (-107.9 °F), and it decreases as the concentration of ammonia increases.

pH Level:

Ammonia solution is alkaline, with a pH value ranging from 11 to 12.5. It acts as a base and can neutralize acids.


The density of the ammonia solution varies with the concentration of ammonia. Imagine a 10% ammonia solution with a density of about 0.93 g/cm³. In contrast, a 25% solution has a density of approximately 0.89 g/cm³.

Uses of Ammonia Solution

Ammonia solution finds applications in various industries and households due to its unique properties. Some common uses include:

Household Cleaning Products:

Ammonia solution is a key ingredient in many household cleaning products. When using ammonia solution to remove dirt, grease, and stains from surfaces such as glass, countertops, and bathroom fixtures, it is crucial to exercise caution. To ensure safety and reduce potential health risks, it is advisable to work in well-ventilated areas due to the solution’s strong odor.

Fertilizers and Agriculture:

Ammonia solution is a vital component in the manufacturing of nitrogen-based fertilizers. It provides a readily available source of nitrogen to plants, promoting healthy growth and improving crop yield.

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:

Ammonia solution is widely used as a refrigerant in industrial refrigeration systems and air conditioning units. Its low boiling point and excellent heat transfer properties make it an efficient choice for cooling applications.

Industrial Applications:

Ammonia solution is utilized in various industrial processes. It finds application in metal surface treatment, the production of dyes and pigments, and serves as a precursor in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals.

Safety Precautions and Handling

When working with ammonia solution, it is crucial to follow proper safety precautions. Here are some key considerations:

Handling and Storage:

Ammonia solution should be handled with care. When handling the solution, it is advisable to wear suitable protective gear like gloves and goggles. It should be stored in tightly sealed containers in well-ventilated areas, away from sources of heat and incompatible substances.

Health and Environmental Risks:

Ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact with the skin or eyes can lead to harmful effects from ammonia solution. It is important to avoid prolonged exposure and take necessary safety measures. If accidental exposure occurs, seeking immediate medical attention is essential. Furthermore, it is crucial to refrain from releasing ammonia solution into the environment as it can pose harmful consequences to aquatic life and ecosystems.


Ammonia solution is a versatile liquid with a wide range of applications. Its distinctive characteristics, including alkalinity, solubility, and heat transfer capabilities, render it valuable across diverse industries. From household cleaning to industrial processes, ammonia solution plays a significant role. Nonetheless, careful handling and usage are imperative due to its pungent odor and potential health hazards.


1. Is ammonia solution the same as household ammonia?
A. No, household ammonia is a weaker form of ammonia solution, typically containing around 5% ammonia. It is commonly used for cleaning purposes.

2. Can ammonia solution be used for pest control?
A. Ammonia solution is not an effective method for pest control. There are other specific pesticides and insecticides available for this purpose.

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About the author

Srujal Sharma

Partner at Jaysons Chemical Industries
Srujal Sharma is a Managing Partner at Jaysons Chemical Industries, a chemical manufacturing and logistics company which focuses on supply of ammonia products in the domestic and international markets since 1966. Having 3+ years of experience as an ammonia expert, and as a project manager for more than 2 years prior to that, Srujal has the acumen to carve out the best solutions for ammonia in any industry.

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